Mobile Experience Network
Handheld tools for creative people

International symposium on Mobile Creativity

journal day 1


15.-16. June 2005



journal day 2

written by Tamiko Thiel

Wednesday, 15. June 2005

14:00 opening
Dr. Christian Gögger, ZKMax
- welcome to second symposium
- short description of history and purpose of ZKMax:
o ZKMax as prototype of a satellite station for ZKM

Horst Konietzny, xinober
- symposium looks at mobile technology not from business but from cultural side
- what will this medium bring, what can we do with it?
- medium is developing, changing extremely quickly
- exhibit of works done in the augsburger technical university (where?)
- tomorrow evening Taiwanese ring tones concert, will be able to load ring tones free
- party tomorrow night thanks to Zündfunk

mobile tools for creative people

Prof. KP Ludwig John, xinober, univ. of applied sciences Augsburg
Purpose of symposium:
- what will be the developments in the next 5 to 8 years?
- new utopia?
- or continuation of current developments?
- 1997: (In year when Augsburger FHS got first PC)
o interactive art goldene nica award for “music plays images x images play music”
o connections between artists and machines were important
o computer, machine, media
- 2005 goldene nica, in contrast:
o MILKproject – like a normal daily conversation between people
o i.e. connections between people were important
o stories, mobility
- i.e. as technologies develop, fascination for technology loses importance
- then we can focus on purpose, not tools
Current state of technology:
- technical communication and media is now totally digital
- anywhere and always on – technology is mobile
- developing toward embedded systems (technology embedded in reality, embedded in normal objects)
- virtual and physical realities are smoothly connected
- device is not so important in perception of user, experience of user is more important
- device becomes mobile personal companion
- device has potential to be universal interface
- takes a while for technology to mature, develop
- new technology develops next to current media and slowly replaces them (e.g. relationships of photography to painting)
- human experience become more and more mediated
Functional spectrum
- telecommunications (e.g. telephone)
- mobile media player: music, TV (in 2005 already some programs developed just for mobiles)
o micromovies kurzcodiertes (serena stoerlein)
o xPOSTEN – sends little digital „gifts“
- mobile universal interface
o previous: chaos computer blinkenlights 2002, could play pong via mobile phone
o microwars by peuker. based on artillery ballistics system, cell phone to cell phone
o FHA mobile experience Urmel lebt!: cell phone as interface
- content producer
o photos, videos, sounds, notes -> position will come
o GPS drawing wood & pryor: drawings recorded by satellite, public participation
o mobile blog – very popular – images, text comments
o raises the old question: is really everybody an artist???
o brechts radio theory: listener as sender – utopia or possibility?
o potential directions to go in:
• wikipedia, open source
• what standards?
• inclusion of real space in interface concept
o too much data to trust to one mobile device? what if it is stolen?

Prof. Russel Beal PhD, Advanced Interaction Group, University of Birmingham
mobiles for social interaction
the vision:
- connected digital world
- fast, free easy access to info
- widely networked, simple comm
- free opinions and ability to express them
- knowledge society (assumes well educated, diverse, connected society)
- absent buy virtually present – location not so important
the reality
- closed, insular world
- ipod, sms, mobile creates autistic beings tuned out of the immediate reality
- blogs, news feeds – write and read only what you know and agree with, only talk to the choir
- ignorance society, not knowledge society
- present in body, absent in mind
possible to support social interactions instead?
- use systems as tool to enhance interaction
mobiles provide a good platform:
- pervasive, ubiquitous
- easy to use
- personal device with personal, private info
- expectation of increased functionality
so what is important in life?
- love, friendship
- communication
- health
- i.e. categories should not be “work and play” but rather overarching human needs
bluedating, to help nerdy students find a potential partner
- help with sifting of potential partners
- profile of own interests, personality
- profile of desired person
- system exchanges profiles over bluetooth to find match
- flagged with match found
- worked pretty well, and then needed content as well (now that we’ve met, what do we talk about?)
- is local, personal, discreet (good use of personal device, not so exposed as on internet website)FRIENDSHIP:
shared space
- friendship is about sharing experiences, thoughts with each other
- sharing documents, images, comments, etc.
- bluetooth wireless peer to peer networking with security
- allow friends to share with you and you with them, without effort
- allows building up sense of community
- used within his group
- each little piece of info may not be important, but sharing of these smalls bits are important to cement friendships, build community
projected public space – extend system into more public realm, open it up to visitors
- on your own device you get a personalized view into that space
- text, images etc. posted from all sorts of sources (including phones, laptops, web)
- but you run out of space very quickly, so use AI for automatic summaries
o e.g. for news feed, expand entire text only if you select it, otherwise only summary
- peer review – community based rating
- articles organized by score and personal preference
- made coffee rooms more chatty
o people had more to talk about when they ran into each otherCOMMUNICATION
situated interaction (like ZKMax – have to come down here to see the videos)
- door to his office is good example: he can be found here at this location
- but students and lecturers often miss each other, come and go at different times
- system puts electronic screen on door accessible via web/phone interface
o lecturer can leave messages for visitors
o visitors can leave messages, forwarded by system to lecturer’s phone
o faster and easier to update than website or direct SMS
o current version: device with small screen – like a small electronic chalkboard
o should be built into environment, more a part of the environment, not stealable
moblogging (mobile blogging)
- blogging is
o personal, chronological reflections
o stream of consciousness
- need for immediacy -> mobile blogging
- but need to manage blogs as well a post to them
- moblog client allows user to edit blogs
- no hassle, easy to use, one click functionality
general design issues
- approach to design is critical
- users may appropriate tech in different ways, but if it is designed well they will be willing to take up new tech
- use AI (“appropriate” intelligence)
o i.e. not make machines like they do in movies
o develop context awareness, use user modeling, personalization, profiling etc.
• i.e. appropriate to the task at hand
• make reasonable guesses based on personal profile
o user centered rather than technology driven development
o must incorporate wider social contexts of interactions
• e.g. are camera phones good or evil? what is cost to society? loss of privacy?
- mobile is powerful tool
- can support existing social interactions
- can extend interactions because it is:
o personal
o pervasive
o confident users
o already interwoven into society
- tech can be used for good and bad
- opportunity now to drive things one way or the other
- need to have ethical and citizenship awareness as well as commercial acumen

Steffen P. Walz, ETH Zürich, Pervasive games
“A not so far future mobile experience: serious pervasive games (spg)”
Walz: game design researcher, PhD candidate in architecture dept.
what are serious pervasive games? what is the nature and future of games?
- the world is a game board
o but the gamer is the most important part [why did he SAY this but not WRITE it in his notes? - Tamiko]
- the game is where YOU are
o what is this place? how can it be used in the game?
- ideas come first, then co-texts and contexts, then media and tech
- spg have dialectics:
o empower novel subjective experiences
o are near-perfect surveillance and motivation tools
history digging: technologized game and play architectures
- coliseum, labyrinths, carrousels, Disney world, doll houses etc.
definition: serious game
- serves non-entertainment purposes like training, learning, health, security, military (very important in the development so far!), management, marketing, public policy
definition: pervasive games
- use mobile, wireless, sensor, positioning tech for new type of play experience, merge virtual and physical game components
- cross spectrum from physical reality to virtual reality
definition: spg
- surveillance (to know what user is doing)
- pervasive computing
- players engage in an artificial conflict defined by rules
- results in quantifiable outcome
- is entertaining and experiential, but non-entertainment purpose
o with games, learning is the drug
- spans spectrum from control to resistancePROJECTS
not so obvious serious fun technologies
- face recognition
- gait identification
- DNA fingerprinting
- vehicle traffic tracking
- electronic tagging
- location tracking
- wiretapping bugging
- project echelon
- data warehouse
- id cards
- closed circuit TV video surveillance
third party spg examples
- Microsoft “I love bees”
o marketing for halo2 xbox
o website, world is under attack, list of public payphones, w/password hear part of radio play, real actors
o had half million players
- MIT environmental detectives emergency bio learning
o PDA and GPS virtual actors interviewed OWN PROJECTS:

exemplary prototyping methods
- take location, turn into site of game
- use board game structure to prototype techno games
example: security
- team of 5 players have to find hidden atom bomb, defuse
- real actors, collaborative play experience
- world in PDA, WLAN
- large social component
o got a bit out of hand people were locked up, doors broken down
o have to make sure that experience is good for players
o shouldn’t become emotionally TOO real
policy: Spirits of Split / tourist marketing
- people, buildings, objects
- collective cube puzzle, citizen participation, live action role playing
- you exchange objects with actors in order to get a piece of the puzzle
- actors are local residents
health: lightFight
- wearable biofeedback device
- IP enabled room functionalities
- ETH media room: can also control temperature of room, etc.
o if user confronts dragon, raise temperature in room
o user can “blow out” light
o useful in rehabilitation – teach people to redevelop their lost abilities
education ETHGame
- e-learning and community building
- as game becomes more difficult, must work together with others
fundraising game ETH fundraising
- aliens land in Zurich
- have to buy 40k of these objects to find out secret message
- like chaos computer clubs “blinkenlights:” mobile phone and media augmented façade
- at this point it is possible to use any telephone and provide any control and functionality
o i.e. mobile phone is like joystick
- film:
o call number from telephone
o choose user ID via number pad
o play “snake” via number pad
o could also use voice

Dr. Patrick Robertson, DLR, Institut für Kommunikation und Navigation
European Integrated Project „Daidalos“
- involves very large consortium of Telco operators, industry, research labs
- wants to create truly networked pervasive applications
- Scenario Based Development (rather than technology motivated development)
- how to coordinate 200 plus people working on same research project?
- technical solutions:
o networks,
o comm tech,
o software platforms,
o GUIs
- Users / people orientation - look at:
o people’s goals
o groups
o advantages
o visions
How to bridge gap:
- media (content, services)
- pervasiveness
- ease of use
- seamless
- costs
- fun
one simple view of pervasiveness
- global access (fixed/wireless/mobile) versus user experience/intuitiveness levelKEY SCENARIOS
mobile university
- game in which students should fall in love
- narrative centers centered around students
- uses pervasive networks, services and devices
- to study, interactive, find each other, be entertained
- dynamic reconfiguration
o who is there?
o what are they doing?
o who needs what?
o what do I need now?
o how do we do things efficiently?
o is it private? (e.g. if professor is around, don’t show private photos – context sensitive!)
- narrative: person uses car for business, personal tasks (meeting people, getting things, holiday, getting somewhere, helping in emergency)
- seamless transitions between in-car devices and PDA, PCs
- different networks are used
- only those services are displayed that are of use now
overall approach:
- project has strict auditing requirements
- therefore they developed formal approach in order to fulfill those requirements
- start with scenario
o some people look at environment
o others at technical scenario
- out of that feedback, developed a refined key scenario
o better understanding of associated business models
o technological needs
o system architecture
o usability
example story: seamless transitions between different environments
- Bart is at home watching newscast, receives call from boss on PDA
- must go to airport to pick up Rosalyn – boss sends virtual ID of Rosalyn to PDA
- Bart’s newscast AND voice call follow him into car
- but car’s PC knows that he is driving and shouldn’t be distracted with visuals so newscast is on hold
- car’s PC at airport shows info from airport’s system on Rosalyn’s flight
- as Bart leaves car, flight info is transferred seamlessly from car’s PC to his PDA
- message comes in – she’s already landed.
- Bart messages her that she should meet him at meeting point 5
- when Rosalyn lands her PDA she turns it on, receives Bart’s message
daidalos demonstrator: context management and personalization
- manage health situations
- diabetes patient is wearing a monitoring device, connected to hospital server
- also carrying a PDA
- if insulin levels become too low, she receives a message on her PDA
- is she doesn’t react, system will notify friends or helpers
- context management: sensor values, location
- privacy and access control
Conclusion: even in technologically motivated project, use scenario based user perspective to understand what is needed and what SHOULD be done


spatial turn

Horst Konietzny, xinober, univ. of applied sciences Augsburg
we are turning away from the virtuality of the last decade to the spatiality of this decade
• space affects time – and history
• can this be captured? communicated?
multimedia omnipresence
- video surveillance
- reading, monitoring space and spatial experience
- dynamic information system in space
- ubiquitous computer networks
- market penetration
- multimedia clothing
- proliferation of hotspots
- the immobile becomes mobile
- tendency to the volatile and the flexible
- Philips pavilion 1958/expo Brussels -> kas oosterhuis water pavilion 1997
o interactive architecture
o architecture in data space
o media facades
Interactive architectures
- user, environment changes environment
- liebeskind, Jewish museum:
o used coordinates of former living areas of Jews in Berlin to determine building shape
- facades of buildings become symbols, screens – crosses to mourn death of john paul II
- New York – via mobile phone can change color of shoes on
We have transitioned from:
- immersion in virtual spaces
- to augmented space
- to dynamic networking of the real and the virtual
- grafedia: words written anywhere, then linked to images, video, sound files online
- Urban Diaries– can send messages to real spaces
- dynamic networking, passing glances: entertainment for people in waiting rooms
- murmur: oral history, collects stories of residents, hearable on mobile devices
- mediaattori – urban mediator – hybrid infrastructure for neighborhoods – how can we help residents affect their own community
- adding spice to the space: filling empty spaces of consumption with meaningful content
- delete – remove texts from an environment and replace with plain bright yellow areas
in order to make content for urban spaces that are already overwhelming we have to develop means of
- wurfsendungen
- MIT projects

Dr. Katja Kwastek (Ludwig Maximilian Universität München)
Assistant for art history, media art, will talk about new organization of public space through artistic interventions
media art in public spaces – from physical spaces to data spaces
- new type of public space – net activity etc.,
- traditional public art: cathedrals, public artworks for rulers etc
- in 1960s first “media” art: mail art (letters), fax, satellite
- today: network art, mobile or wireless art
- locational art versus virtual (data space or mobile user as moving object)
“ohne schnur”
- art and wireless communication exhibit
- total work of art – space and artist’s intervention/additions via data
- user w/backpack, compass, GPS travels along a part of the coast
- landscape is stage for crime story
- depending on location hears parts of story told from different angles
- voices fight with each other – “don’t listen to him” – trying to confuse user
- also hears natural science details about location
- all voice texts deal very specifically with the location where user is at that point
- voice texts enhance real spatial location
- what is role of user? purposefully confusing, changing,
Terri ruep, Drift
- not so narrative, more a meditation
- “islands” of sounds distributed over the wattenmeer (mudflats)
- “islands” of sounds move also in and out with the tides
- GPS system, audio headphones
- user can “search” for texts, sounds in space
- user can decide to activate, or lets system “surprise” them when they enter the right location
- texts: james joyce, thomas mann, dante – all question the place of mankind in the world
both works define location in real world where individual texts are played.
- user has feel of sending data directly from own mobile device to façade – although this is not really the path the data takes.
“counterhobby” – virtual race en masse
- user registers on website for a space ship
- gets SMS messages on cell phone – have to move your space ship on website out of danger
- user pulled out of daily life into game life
- game organized via a website
- packets of data send to users cell phones
- do you really want to install this program? game plays with uncertainties in today’s viral world
- cell phones become our interactive partners
elderly woman with device
- mobile feelings
- send smells, tactile experiences (like virtual hugs)

Horst Hoertner, Ars Elektronica Center, Linz
mobile interactions
Futurelab has sociologists, artists, technical people – wide variety – to focus not just on art and tech but also society
intelligent ambience
- mobile computing
- location based services
- augmented reality
- RFID tech
simple user metaphors: example: book as interactive interface
mixed reality installations
- small box, can be positioned on table
- can free “creatures” out of box, participate in fairy tale story
urban interventions
- mobile interactions with facades, wraparound projections
- acoustic interaction affects animations on facades
- SAP headquarter der landesgesellschaft deutschland
o projection on façade of building
o user’s pulse, heartbeat is measured and affects images on facade
interactive design
- digital mockups
- virtual version of Rheingold in stereo onstage with live orchestra, live singers
interactive media performance
- apparition, klaus obermaier & hirokazu kato
- dancer’s body is also a projection surface
mobile interactions (siemens and university cooperation)
- reality based car navigation system
- camera looks through windshield
- display in car combines live feed from video camera overlaid w/car navigation information
gesture garden
- gestures leave traces in the space
- can “record” gestures as graphic objects
- user can control virtual blimp with handheld
- can take “real” images of the city at its current position (images come from out of archive)
- user can chose image of night stars
- user leaves texts as “smoke signals” in location where they are standing
mental maps, and private mekka
- subjective mental maps of a location like bookmarks in the landscape
- Universal Persons Locator
- send messages tied to specific locations
- acoustic texts accompany listener step for step
- progress of narrative depends on location and speed of user
- if he leaves the path, he leaves the text
- a thermal display that gives the user feedback whether he/she is going in the right direction, like the game
- certain billboards function as anchor points for personal AR environments
- AR environments can only be seen with mobile devices, otherwise they look like normal billboards
virtual bells – as if the kid was wearing bells
- developed out of the car navigation system INSTAR project
- orientation sensor, GPS on mobile device
- horizontal position gives you map function
- vertical position gives you camera function
digital graffiti
- when user is in right location, can read message
- leave notes for friends in specific places

Dr. Rainer Malaka, European Media Lab, Heidelberg
intelligent mobile media – new forms of computer assistance
- medium means “in the middle” and this is where it should be
- intelligent media: computer should be mediator between computer and person or between person and person
- i.e. medium as tool and communicator
smart Kom: accessible from
- information kiosks
- PDAs
- home
- symmetrical multimodalities: gesture, facial grimaces, speech
- situated delegation oriented dialogue paradigm
- ubiquitous computing and semantic web
- user can receive info but also ask questions
virtual Heidelberg / AR
- when user asks what is it camera recognizes building, gives info on what it is
- how did it used to look? overlay existing state with previous state
- “stages” – 3D models for these specific areas
o “ghost stories: embedded in specific areas
o interactive story
o intelligent access to various databases
o animated characters can tell about history, etc.
o right now is large backpack with lots of gear, augmented reality headset
o one version is on PDA
o small version for WAP cell phonesNathalie Singer, Deutschlandradio Kultur Wurfsendung
did not present

mobile communities

Prof. Dr. Thomas Rist, univ. of applied sciences Augsburg
what are mobile communities?
- groups of people sharing values, interests, etc.
- some or all of whom are nomads
- interaction between member is mediated by mobile technology
- time scale: long lasting or temporary?
- organizational form: managed versus self-organized
examples: teams with mobile members (e.g. some traveling in autos, some in office)
- how to support team members w/mobile technologies?
o communication
o sharing representations
o telepresence
- enabling technologies
o multimedia messaging
o broadband networks
o convergence e.g. text -> voice, but also graphics -> voice
o presence services
mobile multiplayer gaming
- sharing representations
- communication
- team formation
- enabling technologies
o multimedia messaging, broadband networks
o game server
o ad hoc networks
mobile collaborative learning
- sharing representations
- communication
- mutual remote control
- team formation
- enabling technologies
o multimedia messaging, broadband networks ...
o tailorable platforms administrated by users
supporting communities by mobile tech
- handhelds used as
o collaboration tools
o remote control device
o universal sensing units
o memory aids
- enabling technologies
o multimedia messaging
o broadband networks
o service discovery
o information management
giving voice to the people
- ad hoc formation of interest groups
- participation tool, e.g. for voting
- coordination tool
- [ see 2005 election in the Ukraine! - Tamiko]
- enabling technologies
o profile matching
o management of users’ needs for security, privacy
catching a glimpse of the future
- how can communities (mobile or not) benefit from mobile technologies?
- what can be learned from the past?
o technology waves
o timelines for market penetration
o mobile voice telephony since 1990
o mobile access to internet since 1997
o mm content and messaging since 2000
o location awareness from here on?
o next: context awareness, smart environments, intelligent agents?

Stefan Holtel, Vodafone Group R&D .DE
“A service is a service is a service”: rethink the term service in the future communication services
telephone heritage and its legacy – hasn’t changed since 19th century
- 1876: voice telephony
- general questions on nature of services driven by infrastructure
o broadband, signaling, dial tones …
- voice telephony merely taken over by mobile services, no real change
paradigm shifts in definition of communication services
- written-centric and asynchronous -> voice-centric and synchronous
- couriers -> letters -> telegram (first step away from written asynchronous)
-> wired phone -> cell phone (service uses the carrier or service IS the carrier)
different definitions of “service”
- set of actions, collection of functionality?
if there is no guiding principle
- it is unclear where further development should take us
- no unique selling/marketing position
comprehensive service definition 1
- activity (what is done?)
- communicator (participator, user)
- meaning (message, content)
comprehensive service definition 2 - service layers and compatibility:
- “blue sky” ideal vision level
o usability
o abstraction level close to “natural” human activity
o totally technology agnostic
- “surface of water” level
o partly techno driven
o features of applications
o abstraction level part human activity part technical concepts
- “under the sea” level
o mostly techno centered
o service abstraction due to technical viewpoint
o enables “blue sky and “surface of water” service levels
- i.e. enabling technologies are not in and of themselves services!
o e.g. selling “broadband” is selling technology, not service
comprehensive service definition 3:
- every service supports a communicator to achieve a goal
- if there is no goal, there is no service, even though the technology exists
o e.g. what is the service idea behind SMS or MMS?
[Sorry, I consider this to be a bad example: SMS is a GREAT service! It allows you to use your cell phone as a communication device even when it would be prohibitively expensive to use the voice service - e.g. when you and your communication partner are both overseas. - Tamiko]
o e.g. why is WLAN or UMTS no service at all?
o e.g. what could be the service idea in VolP?
Example of comprehensive service definition: iSense
- goal: relax though body control
- 1st communicator: you
- 2nd communication: you again
- activity: body feedback control
- meaning: body parameter
Example of comprehensive service definition: nTag interactive
- goal: get in touch with other conference attendees
- 1st communicator: attendee
- 2nd communicator: attendee
Example of comprehensive service definition: Pindices
- goal: express political attitudes
- 1st communicator: you
- 2nd communicator: everyone who is aware of your buttons
- activity: create your own button, carry it, publish on the internet
distinguishing services from enablers
- service
o added value from communicator’s viewpoint
o technology agnostic description of functionality
- enabler
o no added value from communicator’s viewpoint
o technologically limited specs of functionality
what to use comprehensive service definition for?
- specify new service ideas, understand relations to each other
- discover blind spots for future
- create lingua franca for people w/different skills when negotiating new services
- question acknowledged service categories
- identify general telecom services business cases
- create common service specification methodology
- assemble unified process for successful service creation

Christian Hauck, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für künstliche Intelligenz
Saarland Unwired: pilot project to learn from mobile users
- build several WLAND hotspot clusters in inner cities of Saarland
- target group: wide levels of society, not just businessman
- develop module w/low running costs and high availability
- place access points at store, commercial location where owner has large personal interest in having a hotspot
- commercial service after pilot phase
- avoid obvious problems:
o enable low usage fee of 1.5 euros, etc.
Hotspot cluster St Johanner Markt
- since July 2004, marketing and info (flyers)
WLAN at the university
- cooperation with and extension of university computer center
- students were informed where hotspots were located
- extend WLAN to outdoors places
further projects;
- St. Wendel, St Ingbert
- other cities
- will become regional market
- cooperation with several WLAN providers
- technology is invisible
- how to publicize location of hotspot cluster
- WLAN unknown in large sections of population – including students
- no culture of internet use in public spaces
experience from previous projects
- technical innovation as marketing factor
- acquisition of sponsors
- promotion team for hotspot cluster
- building up own promotion know-how
o e.g. demo projects cyclocross championship 2005
• web cam images available on cell phones
o multimedia initiative at CeBIT 2005
o UMTS usage, Internet access in university busses
o promotion team:
• female students
• in special team t-shirts
• demonstrating technology
• distributing information in publicProf. Dr. Jürgen Sieck, FHWT Berlin
“Information, communication and learning with mobile electronic devices”
pergamon museum in berlin: WLAN network
- user has PDA in museum
- map with overview, objects with background info
mobile info system for tourists
- user can choose which map features to show
- hotels, cafes, where are tourist attractions
- navigation suggestions how to get from a to b
- where is my partner, where can we meet

Kristijan Mihalic, ICT&S, University of Salzburg
”Context in Mobile Devices and Services”
what disturbs depends on context
- e.g. for movie theater, cell phone ring tone should sound like popcorn crunching!
- no place is context free
- in mobile systems, context is dynamic
- context-aware, adaptive systems will become more and more important
value of context
- context increases communication richness in human-computer interaction
- added value services for users
- less obtrusive
- more natural interaction
- technical: device capabilities (position, proximity)
- social: culture (rules, norms), social relationships (power), function (attempts, goals)
- communication
- collaboration
- scheduling
- gaming
- tourism
Project COMODO
- context on mobile devices using ontologies
- user centered design w/focus groups, scenario based design
- how do users understand/perceive context?
- what user interaction patterns emerge by using context aware system? (i.e. adaptability)
- how can level of obtrusiveness be measured?
results of focus groups
- daily user of mobile phones (students, field workers)
- importance of social roles (boss versus friends/family)